According to Siddha, human body sustains the state of healthy living via keeping the Three Humours in equilibrium, influenced by dietary habits, daily activities and the environment around. In case this equilibrium is disturbed, it leads to a condition known as disease. It is basically the derangement of five elements, which in turn alters the Three Humors. There can either be a decrease or increase in the balance.
However, to identify the disease and its cause, a scientific method is
required. In Siddha medicine system, the method of diagnosis is quite
unique and is entirely based on the 'clinical acumen' of the physician.
The physician examines the tongue, complexion, speech, eyes, and
palpatory findings in a patient. This is followed by the examination of
the urine and stools. The diagnosis is also confirmed by the 'Pulse
These are known as the 'Eight Tools of Diagnosis'. These tools not only
enable the physician to diagnose the anomaly but also help to discover
the prospects and restoration of health. It should be noted that pulse
diagnosis was distinctive in Siddha medicine and was later used in other
medicine systems. The pulse is examined from the right hand of the males
and left hand of the females.
The pulse is recorded at the Radial-artery. The unit of pulse diagnosis
is 1 for Vatham 1/2 for Pitham and 1/4 for Kapham. This unit is
equivalent to the size of a grain (wheat). Besides, the interrogation of
the patient only plays a nominal role in determining the cause of the
disease. The symptoms and procedure of the eight-fold examination,
commonly known as Ashta Sthana Pariksa are given below: