The constitution of lays down guidelines related to main political principles, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of various government institutions and agencies. The constitution also highlights fundamental rights, fundamental duties and directive principles.

The Constitution of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and came into effect on 26 January 1950. The Constituent Assembly was the main body responsible for drafting the constitution of India that would lay the basis of governance. The Indian Constitution was one of the first steps taken by an Independent India to form the base for a democratic nation. The Constitution lays down the foundations of the government under which the people of the country are to be governed. The constitution clearly establishes three main structures of the government - the Judiciary, the Legislature and the Executive, their structure and functioning. The structure of the constitution also delineates the accountabilities of each utility. The Constitution, thus, outlines the functions of all these three structures with the government for the benefit of the citizens of the country. Made with democratic ideals and a vision of autonomy, the Indian Constitution is the first and last word in Indian law and governance and lays down the national goals of democracy, socialism, secularism and national integration while spelling out the rights, duties and obligations of the Indian Citizen.

The Preamble
The Preamble is one of the most significant aspects of the Indian Constitution. Focusing on the chief objectives of the Indian constitution the Preamble states the following.

�We the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic and to secure all of its citizens:

JUSTICE, social, economic and political
LIBERTY, of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and opportunity;
And to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation;
In our constituent assembly, this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this constitution.
Being the heart of the Indian Constitution, the Preamble focuses on the spirit of the country which is made especially for and by the people of India without the influence of outer powers or governments.

Elements of the Constitution
It is the longest constitution ever drafted in the history of mankind. The Indian constitution has 22 parts, 13 schedules and 444 articles. The articles and the structures of the Indian constitution, provide the citizens with the rights and liberties that are entitled to them on being a citizen of the country. There are also long lists of duties that the Indian citizen has to follow as per the constitution of the country. It is a written constitution that promises the citizens of the country their sovereignty, and describes the fundamental rights, directive principles and fundamental duties of the inhabitants. It follows a rigid and flexible system and is centrally governed by the Government of the country, allowing for amendments and additions to the original draft of the constitution.

Functions of the Constitution
Although the constitution has had various amendments, additions and deletions, it has been the backbone of the functioning of the country from the time it was drafted in the year 1949. Being a federal, democratic republic, India has incessantly been administered by the functions of the Indian constitution, which will always remain as the mainstay for the development and the running of the country.