The topography of India is very diverse constituting of various geographical features. This makes the geography of ancient India very unique due to the fact that people used to live in extremes. The geographical terrains were varied, ranging from rivers, to plains to mountainous terrains. Though extreme terrains, they provided the perfect cradle for civilization to develop in ancient India. The establishment of many small villages took place on the fertile river plains where agriculture was easier to practice.
The evidence of ancient Indian geography is found in the Holy
Scriptures. The sacred chants and hymns in the Vedas praise the River
Sindhu, which was a mighty river in the north of India. It is said that
this river was the mightiest of all; though there are mention of
rivers like Ganges, Yamuna, Saraswati, Satluj, Ravi, Chenab,
Jhelum, etc. These rivers were the base for ideal flood plains and
became among the first sites for civilization to flourish.
Though the topography was extreme and was prone to unwarned climatic
changes like floods, thunderstorms, etc. they helped greatly in the
growth and expansion of civilization. The mountains provided the much
needed protection from foreign invaders, the rivers made transportation
and navigation possible, the plains made agriculture possible, and so
on. The geography ancient India was definitely an integral part in
helping the development and growth of human settlements and start of one
of the earliest civilizations.