Born: October 2, 1904
Died: January 10, 1966
Achievements: Played a leading role in Indian freedom struggle;
became Parliamentary Secretary of Pandit Govind Vallabh Pant, the then
chief minister of Uttar Pradesh; became the Minister of Police and
Transport in Pant's Cabinet; appointed as the Railways and Transport
Minister in the Central Cabinet; also held the portfolios of Transport &
Communications, Commerce and Industry, and Home Ministry in the Central
cabinet; became Prime Minister of India in 1964; led India to victory
over Pakistan in 1965 war.
Lal Bahadur Shastri was the second Prime Minister of independent India.
Though diminutive in physical stature he was a man of great courage and
will. He successfully led country during the 1965 war with Pakistan. To
mobilize the support of country during the war he coined the slogan of "Jai
Jawan Jai Kisan". Lal Bahadur Sastri also played a key role in
India's freedom struggle. He led his life with great simplicity and
honesty and was a great source of inspiration for all the countrymen.
Lal Bahadur Shastri was born on
October 2, 1904 at Mughalsarai, Uttar Pradesh. His parents were Sharada Prasad
and Ramdulari Devi. Lal Bahadur's surname was Srivastava but he dropped
it as he did not want to indicate his caste. Lal Bahadur's father was a
school teacher and later on he became a clerk in the Revenue Office at
Allahabad. Though Sharada Prasad was poor, he lived a life of honesty
and integrity. Lal Bahadur lost his father when he was only one.
Ramdulari Devi raised Lal Bahadur and her two daughters at her father's
There is a very famous incident regarding Lal Bahadur Shastri's
childhood which took place when he was six years old. One day, while
returning from school, Lal Bahadur and his friends went to an orchard
that was on the way to home. Lal Bahadur Shastri was standing below
while his friends climbed the trees to pluck mangoes. Meanwhile, the
gardener came and caught hold of Lalbahadur Shastri. He scolded Lal
Bahadur Shastri and started beating him. Lal Bahadur Shastri pleaded to
gardener to leave him as he was orphan. Taking pity on Lal Bahadur, the
gardener said, "Because you are an orphan, it is all the more
important that you must learn better behavior." These words left a
deep imprint on Lal Bahadur Shastri and he swore to behave better in the
Lal Bahadur stayed at his grandfather's house till he was ten. By that
time he had passed the sixth standard examination. He went to Varanasi
for higher education. In 1921 when Mahatma Gandhi launched the
non-cooperation movement against British Government, Lal Bahadur
Shastri, was only seventeen years old. When Mahatma Gandhi gave a call
to the youth to come out of Government schools and colleges, offices and
courts and to sacrifice everything for the sake of freedom, Lal Bahadur
came out of his school. Though his mother and relatives advised him not
to do so, he was firm in his decision. Lal Bahadur was arrested during
the Non-cooperation movement but as he was too young he was let off.
After his release Lal Bahadur joined Kashi Vidya Peeth and for four
years he studied philosophy. In 1926, Lal Bahadur earned the degree of "Shastri"
After leaving Kashi Vidya Peeth, Lal Bahadur Shastri joined "The
Servants of the People Society", which Lala Lajpat Rai had started
in 1921. The aim of the Society was to train youths that were prepared
to dedicate their lives in the service of the country. In 1927, Lal
Bahadur Shastri married Lalitha Devi. The marriage ceremony was very
simple and Shastriji took only a charkha (spinning wheel) and few yards
of Khadi in dowry.
In 1930, Gandhiji gave the call for Civil Disobedience Movement. Lal
Bahadur Shastri joined the movement and encouraged people not to pay
land revenue and taxes to the government. He was arrested and put in
jail for two and a half years. In jail Shastriji became familiar with
the works of western philosophers, revolutionaries and social reformers.
Lal Bahadur Shastri had great self respect. Once when he was in prison,
one of his daughters fell seriously ill. The officers agreed to release
him out for a short time but on condition that he should agree in
writing not to take part in the freedom 'movement during this period.
Lal Bahadur did not wish to participate in the freedom movement during
his temporary release from prison; but he said that he would not give it
in writing. He thought that it was against his self-respect to give it
After Second World War started in 1939, Congress launched "Individual
Satyagraha" in 1940 to demand freedom. Lal Bahadur Shastri was
arrested during Individual Satyagraha and released after one year. On
August 8, 1942, Gandhiji gave the call for Quit India Movement. Lal
Bahadur actively participated in the movement. He went underground but
was later arrested. Lal Bahadur Shastri was released in 1945 along with
other major leaders. He earned the praise of Pandit Govind Vallabh Pant
by his hard work during the 1946 provincial elections. Lal Bahadur's
administrative ability and organization skills came to the fore during
this time. When Govind Vallabh Pant became the Chief Minister of Uttar
Pradesh, he appointed Lal Bahadur Shastri as his Parliamentary
Secretary. In 1947, Lal Bahadur Shastri became the Minister of Police
and Transport in Pant's Cabinet.
Lal Bahadur Sastri was the General Secretary of the Congress Party when
the first general elections were held after India became Republic.
Congress Party returned to power with a huge majority. In 1952, Jawahar
Lal Nehru appointed Lal Bahadur Shastri as the Railways and Transport
Minister in the Central Cabinet. Lal Bahadur Shastri's contribution in
providing more facilities to travelers in third class compartments
cannot be forgotten. He reduced the vast disparity between the first
class and third class in the Railways. Lal Bahadur Shastri resigned from
Railways in 1956, owning moral responsibility for a railway accident.
Jawaharlal Nehru tried to persuade Shastriji but Lal Bahadur Shastri
refused to budge from his stand. By his action Lal Bahadur Shastri set
new standards of morality in public life.
In the next general elections when Congress returned to power, Lal
Bahadur Shastri became the Minister for Transport and Communications and
later the Minister for Commerce and Industry. He became the Home
Minister in 1961, after the death of Govind Vallabh Pant. In the 1962
India-China war Shastriji played a key role in maintaining internal
security of the country.
After the death of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri was
unanimously elected as the Prime Minister of India. It was a difficult
time and the country was facing huge challenges. There was food shortage
in the country and on the security front Pakistan was creating problems.
In 1965, Pakistan tried to take advantage of India's vulnerability and
attacked India. Mild-mannered Lal Bahadur Shastri rose to the occasion
and led the country ably. To enthuse soldiers and farmers he coined the
slogan of "Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan". Pakistan lost the war and
Shastriji's leadership was praised all over the world.
In January 1966, to broker peace between India and Pakistan, Russia
mediated a meeting between Lal Bahadur Shastri and Ayub Khan in
Tashkent, Russia. India and Pakistan signed the joint declaration under
Russian mediation. Under the treaty India agreed to return to Pakistan
all the territories occupied by it during the war. The joint declaration
was signed on January 10, 1966 and Lal Bahadur Shastri died of heart
attack on the same night.