There is a great diversity in the climatic conditions across the state of Gujarat with different parts having markedly disparate climatic conditions
Climate: Tropical Dry
- Gujarat region: 1107mm
- Saurashtra and Kutch: 578mm
Climatically, a year in Gujarat can be divided into three seasons, the winter from November to February, the summer from March to May and monsoon season from June to September, with October being the intervening month. There is a great diversity in the climatic conditions across the state of Gujarat with different parts having markedly disparate climatic conditions. The places that lie near the coasts are humid whereas the ones lying in the interiors experience a completely different climatic condition. The Rann of Kutch region suffers an extreme climate where the summers are extremely hot while the winters are too cold. On the other hand, the coastal regions and the eastern belt of Gujarat experience a mild and pleasant climatic condition with moderate rainfall during the monsoons. Continue reading to learn more about the overall climatic condition and the geographical location of Gujarat.
Winter season in Gujarat is from November to February. During the winters the climate in Gujarat is mild, pleasant and dry with average temperatures ranging around 29°C during the day time and night temperatures around 12°C.
Summer season in Gujarat is from March to May. The summers in the state are extremely hot and dry, with day temperatures rising up to around 41°C and night temperatures up to 29°C. Once the monsoons arrive in mid-June, the daytime temperature drops to 35°C and night temperature falls to around 27°C, though the humidity remains very high.
Monsoon season runs from June to September and brings rainfall to Gujarat. The southern parts of the state receive average rainfall of somewhere between 760 and 1520 mm. In the northern parts of Gujarat, the average rainfall ranges from 510 to 1020 mm. While, the southern highlands of Saurashtra and the Gulf of Cambay experience a rainfall of around 630 mms, the other parts of Saurashtra receive an annual rainfall of less than 630 mms. The part of Gujarat which experiences the lowest average rainfall is the semi-desert Kutch.
Geography and Its Effect on Weather
- Gujarat is the western-most state in India which occupies the northern extremity of the western sea-board of India. The state is bounded by Pakistan and the state of Rajasthan in the north-west and north respectively. To the east it borders Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. The Union Territories of Daman, Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli lie to the south of Gujarat. The state is also bounded by the Arabian Sea in the west and the south-west.
- The Tropic of Cancer passes through the northern border of Gujarat, which causes an extreme climatic condition in Gujarat. However, the Arabian Sea which borders the state and the Gulf of Cambay in the west and the wooded hills in the east somewhat subjugates the climatic extremes.
- Mainland Gujarat consists of the eastern rocky highlands of 300 to 1000 meters, the extensions of the mountains of western India and the western alluvial plains including the coastal plains (25 to 75 meter).
- Saurashtra Peninsula is a hilly tract with low mountains of 300-600 meter. It is bordered by the coastal plains.
- Kachchh region is rocky and barren and is composed of the Ranns, the Banni plains, the hilly region with the island belt of four rocky projections rising above the Rann, the Kachchh mainland, and the southern coastal plains.
- The rivers Banas, Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada, and Tapi are the major rivers flowing through Gujarat plain which drain into the Gulf of Khambatt. While the rivers Ojat, Bhadar, and Shetrunji are the major rivers of Kathiawar peninsula which drain into the Arabian Sea. Apart from these here are few seasonal and small rivers that drain into the Gulf of Kachchh.
- Gujarat hosts around 20 lakh hectares forest land. The major section of the economically profitable forest area is distributed among the districts of Dang, Panchmahal, Broach, Bulsar,Surat, Sabarkantha Junagadh and Banaskantha. The southern and south-eastern parts of the state foster the growth of tropical deciduous forest typified by especially teak, Shorea Robusta which can be found mainly in the of Bulsar district. The Moist Deciduous Forests lie mostly in Dang and parts of Vyara in Surat division. However, these forests are not evergreen as they shed their leaves during the months of March and April.