Ranchi is the capital of Jharkhand and has a fascinating past to narrate. The city of Ranchi got its name from a mountain bird called 'Ranchi'. Again, some speculate that the city drew its name from the Oraon village. The origins of the city stretch back to the tribes belonging to the Chota Nagpur Plateau. The Munda and the Oraon are the two aboriginal settlers that lived and ruled in this region. The city continued to remain free from external intrusions until the invasion of the Mughal dynasty. Despite years of insurgency caused by the local chiefs, the Mughal Dynasty captured and plundered the place. In 1757, the Battle of Plassey not only confirmed the English rule in the region but also in the Coromandel Coast. During the Indian freedom struggle, Ranchi was responsible for hosting several anti-British campaigns. To know a detailed account of Ranchi's history, scroll down the article.
According to the classic tales of Ramayana and Mahabharata, a powerful Kshatriya emperor named Jarasandh ruled this place. Later Ranchi became a part of the Magadha Empire before the Mauryan Empire usurped it. The decline of the Mauryan Empire gave rise to the leadership of the Gupta. Eventually, Ranchi came to be ruled by legendary king Phanimukut, who belonged to the Nag Dynasty. During this time, native tribal people from Munda and Oraon community dominated the district of Ranchi.
The dominance of the Mughal Empire under the leadership and governance of Emperor Akbar was also felt within the district. The Muslim Empire was the first external power to usurp the throne of Chota Nagpur plateau. In the year 1585, the mighty warriors under the guidance of Akbar demolished the forces of Raja of Kokrah. With the demise of Akbar, the place became sovereign again. A few years later, the district resumed the Mughal authority. Under the administration of Jahangir, the then governor of Bihar, Ibrahim Khan was asked to recapture the region. Later the place was captured by East India Company.
After the conquest in the Battle of Plassey, the British became the undisputed emperors in the sub-continent. The region including Ranchi and the nearby precincts came under the British Raj. The Maharaja of Ramgarh was accountable for the administration of the district. The new change in governance was unaccepted by the autochthon residing in the area, which led to the further insurrection in the province. In 1833, the English came up with a peace treaty by forming a prefecture called as the South-Western Frontier Agency. The new region included Ranchi and other bordering districts. Lohardaga became the capital of the new region. Later the capital of this newly created region was relocated to Ranchi and was managed by a representative of the Governor General until 1854. The advent of 1857 brought about a major mayhem in the province. During the Indian Mutiny, Ranchi was the epicenter of anarchistic activities. The city became the main milieu for several revolutionary campaigns, riots and was also regarded as a popular assembly ground by prominent leaders. After 1947, Ranchi constituency was amalgamated to the state of Bihar. It was only on 15 November 2000, when the Indian government formed the new state of Jharkhand, that Ranchi rose to the status of being the capital city once again.