The history of astrology can be traced back to the 2nd millennium BC, the time of the ancient Babylonians. It was during this time that they had started assembling their system of celestial omens. These omens slowly gave rise to the astrological principles and methods that were found to have developed in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. Infact, it is these celestial omens that are believed to have spread from Babylonia to the other countries, like India, China, Greece, etc, and merged with the pre-existing native forms of astrology.
Infact, the Babylonian astrology is said to have influenced the Greeks
as early as the mid-4th century BC. Its influence in Egypt was noticed
somewhere around the late 2nd or early 1st century BC, after the
Alexandrian conquests. Babylonian astrology merged easily with the
Decanic astrology of the Egyptians and made way for the Horoscopic
astrology. Even though the origin of the Horoscopic astrology was
limited to Egypt, it soon spread to the ancient world of Europe, the
Middle East as well as India.
As we move on further with the historical background of astrology, we
notice that it played a constructive role in the development of
astronomy, mathematics, medicine and psychology, right from the
classical period to the period of the scientific revolution. As far as
astronomy is concerned, it was astrology that provided the first
methodical records of the movements of the Sun, the Moon, the planets
and the stars. Infact, in the earlier ages, the distinction between
astrology and astronomy was almost impossible to make.
However, there were numerous critics of astrology, especially before
the modern era. Infact, it was very often challenged by Hellenistic
skeptics, church authorities and even medieval thinkers. With time,
astrological endeavors were repeated across numerous cultures. These
endeavors enriched the field of astronomical knowledge. It was because
of this contribution that astrology came to be known as a Protoscience
as well as Pseudoscience. Renowned scientists, like Galileo, Kepler,
Carl Jung, Copernicus, etc, have made significant contributions in the
field of astrology.