Project Tiger was started in 1973-74 by the
Government of India. Read on to know more about Indian Project Tiger.
Project Tiger was launched by the Indian Government
in 1973-74. The aim of the project was to control as well as supplement
the dwindling population of the Royal Bengal tigers in the country.
Under the Project Tiger of India, specially constituted tiger reserves
are being set up, which are sought to be replicas of the various
bio-geographical regions of the country. The core areas of the reserves
are made free of any human settlement, while the buffer areas are
dedicated to 'conservation oriented' land use.
The objective behind the establishment of the Project Tiger is to
conserve the entire eco-system in which tigers live. With the
introduction of the subsequent 'Five Year Plans', the core and buffer
zones in some of the tiger reserves is being enlarged. A number of other
steps are also being taken, including intensification of protection and
eco-development in the buffer zones, creation of additional tiger
reserves and strengthening of the research activities.
Principles of Project Tiger
Each and every tiger reserve of India has been and is presently being
developed as per the following principles:
- All types of human exploitation and biotic disturbance taking
place in the core area of the reserve will be eliminated.
- The activities in the buffer area will be regulated.
- Habitat management will be limited to only those damages that
have been inflicted by humans and other interferences.
- The changes taking place in flora and fauna will be monitored on
a regular basis.
- Continuous research will carried on in relation to wildlife.
Initially, nine tiger reserves were set up under the
'Project Tiger', namely
- Bandipur National Park (1973-74) - Karnataka
- Jim Corbett National Park (1973-74) - Uttar Pradesh
- Kanha National Park (1973-74) - Madhya Pradesh
- Manas National Park (1973-74) - Assam
- Melghat Wildlife Sanctuary (1973-74) - Maharashtra
- Palamau National Park (1973-74) - Bihar
- Ranthambore National Park (1973-74) - Rajasthan
- Simlipal National Park (1973-74) - West Bengal
- Sunderbans National Park (1973-74) - Orissa
Today the number of tiger reserves, which come under
the 'Project tiger' of India, has increased to 27. In the following
lines, we are providing a list of the remaining 18 tiger reserves in
India, along with the extensions that were done later:
- Periyar National Park (1978-79) - Kerala
- Sariska National Park (1978-79) - Rajasthan
- Buxa National Park (1982-83) - West Bengal
- Indravati National Park (1982-83) - Chattisgarh
- Nagarjunsagar National Park (1982-83) - Andhra Pradesh
- Namdapha National Park (1982-83) - Arunachal Pradesh
- Dudhwa National Park (1987-88) - Uttar Pradesh
- Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (1988-89) - Tamil Nadu
- Valmiki National Park (1989-90) - Bihar
- Pench National Park (1992-93) - Madhya Pradesh
- Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve (1993-94) - Maharashtra
- Bandhavgarh National Park (1993-94) - Madhya Pradesh
- Panna National Park (1994-95) - Madhya Pradesh
- Dampha Tiger Reserve (1994-95) - Mizoram
- Bhadra National Park (1998-99) - Karnataka
- Pench National Park (1998-99) - Maharashtra
- Pakhui-Nameri Tiger Reserve (1999-2000) - Maharashtra
- Bori, Satpura & Pachmarhi Wildlife Sanctuaries (1999-2000) -
- Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary Extension (1999-2000) - Uttar
- Nagarhole National Park Extension (1999-2000) - Karnataka
Project Tiger of India was initially started as fully central
government sponsored scheme. However, since 1980-81, the expenditure is
being equally shared by the central government as well as the state
government. World Wild Federation has also given an aid of US $ 1
million for the project, in the form of equipments, expertise and
The adoption of Project Tiger has resulted in recovery of the
deteriorated habitat and consequently, an increase in the population of
tigers. From 268 in 9 reserves (1972), the population of tigers has
increased to 1576 in 27 reserves (2003). At the same time, the
population of other wild animals in the tiger reserves has also
Management of Project Tiger
The implementation of the project is in the hands of the respective
State Governments. A committee, known as the 'Steering Committee', is
responsible for the administration of the project. Each reserve has a
'Field Director', who has a team of field and technical personnel. Field
execution is the responsibility of the 'Chief Wildlife Warden', at the
state level, and of the 'Director', at the central level.
Efforts Being Undertaken Presently
Wireless communication system and outstation patrol camps have been set
up to control poaching. Relocation of villagers residing in the core
areas of the reserves is being undertaken on a large scale. Live stock
grazing is being controlled and efforts are being undertaken to improve
the water regime as well as the ground and field level vegetations.
Steps to be taken in Future
- Use of Information and Communication technology in Wildlife
Protection and Crime Risk Management in Tiger reserves.
- GIS based digitized database and MIS development/networking in
- Tiger Habitat & Population Evaluation System for the Indian