Located in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, Itanagar is the capital of the state and an important tourist spot in this region. Strategically s situated at the feet of the snow caped Himalayan Mountains, Itanagar falls under the Papum Pare district. The earliest citation of the place dates back to the ancient epic sagas of Ramayana and Mahabharata. In the past, several tribes that were prominent in the region such as Nyishis, Adis, Galos, Apatanis and the Miri's ruled Itanagar. Today, however, the place sees a very small population of the decedents of these ethnic groups. During the 16th century, the Ahom Kingdom ruled the place. In the 16th century, the tribes belonging to the nearby region captured the place. The Ahom dynasty ruled the place with an iron hand until British annexed it. Later, the place underwent territory issues with China, which continued until 1987. Read the article to know more about the history of Itanagar.
According to a legend, Itanagar was believed to be the home to many Hindu mythological characters like Princess Rukmini, King Bhismaka and Lord Parashuram. In fact, the place has found frequent citation in the heroic tales of Ramayana, Mahabharata and other Vedic texts. On the other hand, historians believe that many indigenous ethnic groups, that trace back their roots to the Tibeto-Burman tribes, ruled the place in the past. Since there is no concrete proof on the origins of this region, speculations on their origin is primarily based on the traditions and food habits of the local people.
The only historical record in this province is the chronicles of the Ahom Dynasty belonging to the 16th century. The Ita Fort is the best example of the powerful Ahom rule in Itanagar. According to the records maintained by tribes of Monpa and Sherdukpen, the Monpa chiefs ruled the northwestern part of the state. The Monpa chieftains are said to be a part of the Monyul Empire. The Monyul dynasty flourished during 500 BC. Save for a few sections on the northern frontier that was captured and ruled by Tibet and Bhutan tribes, the remaining parts of the region was controlled by the Ahoms The place continued to be administered by the Ahoms until the British seized the place in the year 1858.
When the state of Arunachal Pradesh fell in the hands of the British, the English administration also faced several border issues. In the year 1913-14, the East Indian Company made efforts to resolve the issue by elucidating the border of British India and Tibet. Sir Henry McMahon drew up 550 miles as a boundary line for British India, which was called as the McMahon line. The proposal was later unaccepted by the Chinese, which led to further disagreements.
After independence, the region once again came under conflict with the Chinese government. People's Republic of China refused to give up Tibet, thereby, heightening the differences between the two nations. India declaring McMahon line as the official boundary and China refusing to accept or reorganize the line further worsened the matter. In the year 1954, the NEFA was created and the issue died down temporarily. A decade later, the matter was awakened again by the People's Republic of China, which led to war in the year 1962. The reason for the Sino-Indian War of 1962 is still not clear. However, the war helped China to capture most parts of the state of Arunachal Pradesh. India, on the other hand, closed all trade activities with Tibet, while Arunachal Pradesh became a union territory in 1972. It was only in 1987 that the Indian government acknowledged Arunachal Pradesh as another state of Independent India.