Like all other medicine systems, Siddha system of medicine also has some underlying principles and concepts. These fundamental principles bear resemblance to that of ancient Ayurveda. According to Siddha system, the human body, food and the drugs are the replica of the universe, irrespective of their origin. Moreover, they believe that the universe holds two main entities namely, matter and energy.
Siddhars call them Siva (male) and Shakti (female). The two are
inseparable and co-exist as matter cannot subsist without the energy in
it and vice versa. They are also the primordial elements, Bhutas, known
as Munn (solid), Neer (fluid), Thee (radiance), Vayu (gas) and Veli
(ether). These are present in every substance in varied proportions.
Also, Earth, Water, Fire, Air and Ether are the manifestations of these
Even the human body is made up of these five elements in different
permutations. It also considers that it is an assortment of three
humours, seven basic tissues and the waste products produced by the body
such as faeces, urine and sweat. The food ingested by the humans is
regarded as the elementary building material of the body, which in turn
is converted into humours, body tissues and waste products.
Besides, the food and drugs also contains mixture of five elements.
However, when the equilibrium of humors, considered as health, is
disturbed, it leads to disease or sickness. Drugs constituting varying
proportion of the elements are responsible for therapeutic actions and
results. Apart from this, Siddha system also lays down the concept of
salvation in life. The exponents of this system emphasize on achievement
of this state via medicines and meditation.